It is evidently that God does exist. Existence of God can be ascertained by looking more in human reasoning without having the needed for perception or evidence. This proof by its right relies on the established concept that God is a perfect being. As He exists in the understanding of people, it means that the idea of a supreme being exists also in their minds. He is also a possible being meaning that He may also exist in reality. If something does exist in the minds of people, then it may also be existing in reality. This means that it may have been greater. Therefore, something that does exist in reality is thus perfect or also great. This is because something which is only an idea in the minds of people could also be greater by it actually existing. Hence God does not only exist in peoples understanding but also in their reality hence the basis of his existence. Hence God being perfect must be existing in all the possible circumstances for Him to satisfy the established conception of His perfection (Morris 1999).
The existence of God can also be proved by the idea of things in the world being in motion. This means that everything in motion must have been put in motion by also another thing that is also in motion. Hence this means that there is a being that worked to put things in motion. Also, everything circumstance or events cannot change themselves but they can only change somethings. Hence there exists a string of causes where the string is not infinite. Then this all means that all the causes must then attribute themselves to an existing first cause. And this cause is God Himself (Thomas 1997).
In order to be happy or fulfilled people, we must be also being good. This means that people must be righteous and strive for the good in life if they are to live a complete fully human life. This statement is true. According to Aristotle, happiness depends on us more than anybody else. He states that happiness is the central purpose of all human life and as a goal in itself. Hence ones happiness is determined by the cultivation of virtues. Nowadays, the idea of happiness is thought to be that of people having more money and wealth, however, happiness is in itself a final end or a goal that encompass the totality of people’s lives. Hence the most important thing in people’s effort to achieve their happiness is to always have good moral character or virtue. Developing virtues means that one should make very hard decisions which in the end will result to his happiness (White 59).
According to Socrates, happiness can also be obtained by human efforts. People should strive to gain rational control over their desires and also harmonize the different parts of their souls. Doing this is meant to enhance the production of a divine-like condition of inner tranquillity that cannot be affected by the external world. Hence this means that the best way to live is living a morally and ethically upright life that would ensure a happy life. According to Plato, acquisition of material wealth and riches can also lead to happiness if all these were acquired by good or virtuous means. Since nobody is born without any good, people can become morally virtuous and therefore happy through the practising of good moral practises (White 64).
Augustine of Hippo was a medieval philosopher who converted to Christianity and dedicated his career to the description of a philosophical system that mostly employed neo-platonic elements in the support of Christian orthodoxy. He believed that human reasoning generally and philosophy in particular are both useful to only people who already have faith. Augustine like Plato argued that evil is not anything that is real but it is simply the absence of good. Just as Plato argued in his writings, Augustine state that the creation of human beings, individuals who have the will to choose their path of their actions is an important component of the divine arrangement for the cosmos that it thus outweighs the apparent consequences of the bad decisions men choose (Kemerling 32).
Augustine also argues that God exists using platonic writings ad views. He states that God exists because of people’s ability to achieve mathematical knowledge and as Plato demonstrated, this awareness and capability goes beyond the sensory realm of appearances completely. He states that people’s knowledge of eternal mathematics truth hence institutes the immateriality and the immortality of their own rational souls. In this statement, Augustus bases his argument on Plato`s Phaedo. Augustine also endorses Platonian perception of God as the fundamental core from which all the reality originate from. He argues that there must be a great being that is the everlasting source of the reality of the existence of numbers and mathematical relations. And that greater being is God. Hence Plato had a heavy influence on Augustine’s theology (Kemerling 34).
Aristotle argues that happiness is as a result of people living virtuous lives. He argues that human happiness is determined by the cultivation of virtues. This argument differs with the Epicurean outlook where the Epicureans view virtue as the means of one acquiring pleasure. Epicureans also argue that there are activities that people do and are considered to be unvirtuous yet they have pleasurable ends (Marx 54).
There are many similarities and differences between Aristotle and the Stoics on the concept of happiness. Aristotle according his teachings on the theory of language and knowledge argues that happiness is something that is done; he further states that happiness is a mindful and present activity of the soul in harmony with excellence and virtue. He concludes by stating that the activity of the soul in quest of excellent and virtuous knowledge was the highest form of happiness, because it is naturally the type of activity which the frail constitutions can carry on for a long continuous period of time and also being an activity which is more magnified by friendships by means of dialectic conversation. Hence for Aristotle, happiness is the quest of knowledge mostly through friendly and dialectic conversation. The stoics view differs with that of Aristotle in as far as their view on happiness as related to death. Stoics view lives as shaped by death hence the need to live as response to the right knowledge of death. Hence for the stoics, knowledge and life are instruments and also reactions where as Aristotle perceives happiness and knowledge as therefore justified by the structure of our being as it is well known from our desires and also activities (Whiting and Engstrom 23).
Stephen Engstrom, Jennifer Whiting. Aristotle, Kant and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. New York: Cambridge, 1998.
White, Stephen Augustus. Philosophy. New York: Stanford University press, 1992.